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Title: Fluctuation and extinction of laminar diffusion flame induced by external acoustic wave and source
Authors: Xiong, C 
Liu, Y 
Fan, H 
Huang, X 
Nakamura, Y
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Scientific reports, 2021, v. 11, 14402
Abstract: Acoustic wave can destabilize the flame and has a potential in firefighting, but the influences of the sound source and its frequency are still poorly understood. This work applies a loudspeaker to extinguish a laminar diffusion propane flame of 5–25 mm high, where the local sound frequency is 50–70 Hz and sound pressure is 0.8–3.2 Pa (92.0–104.1 dB). Results reveal a constant flame pulsating displacement at the extinction limit, independent of the sound environment used. Such a flame pulsating displacement is found to be caused by the motion of the speaker membrane (or diaphragm) and its induced wind, which could be two orders of magnitude larger than the displacement of the air that transmits acoustic wave. Thus, under the influence of sound source, a critical flame strain rate, stretched by the pulsating airflow, can be formulated to characterize the blow-off limit better than the local sound pressure. The sound source with a lower frequency can produce larger pulsating displacements of both membrane and flame, and thus promoting extinction. This work improves the understanding of flame dynamics under the external sound field and source, and it helps establish a scientific framework for acoustic-based fire suppression technologies.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-93648-0
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/.
The following publication Xiong, C., Liu, Y., Fan, H., Huang, X., & Nakamura, Y. (2021). Fluctuation and extinction of laminar diffusion flame induced by external acoustic wave and source. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-12 is available at
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