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Title: Economic and environmental changes in Shenzhen—a technology hub in southern China
Authors: To, WM
Lee, PKC 
Lau, AKW
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: Sustainability, May 2021, v. 13, no. 10, 5545
Abstract: Shenzhen has been established as the technology and innovation center in China. The study reviews its economic development and environmental change over the past four decades. Specifically, it tests whether environmental Kuznets curve relationship between haze as a proxy indicator of environmental condition and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita holds in Shenzhen. The study also examines the contribution of Shenzhen’s secondary sector to its GDP and highlights some changes in the computer, communication and electronic product manufacturing industries over the years. We collected the official data from the Shenzhen Municipal Government. Economic, social and environmental changes in Shenzhen were identified using tables and stacked graphs. Environmental Kuznets curve revealed that the worst environmental condition appeared in Shenzhen during the period 2003–2004. Environmental analysis showed that Shenzhen’s computer, communication and electronic product manufacturing industries consumed 52,595 TJ of energy and produced 10.1 million tons CO2-eq in 2019. As gross output value of the industries was USD 336 billion in 2019, the industries had an energy efficiency of 156,716 MJ/million USD and an emission efficiency of 30.6 tons CO2-eq/million USD, improving by 74% and 65%, respectively, since 2008. Nevertheless, the industries should focus more on high value-added and low energy-intensive technologies and innovations. Additionally, the Shenzhen Government shall increase the use of clean energy sources such as nuclear, wind and solar power in order to sustain the continual improvement of energy and emission efficiencies for all industries.
Keywords: Economic change
Environmental change
Gross domestic product
Hi-tech indus-try
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sustainability 
EISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su13105545
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
The following publication To, W.-M.; Lee, P.K.C.; Lau, A.K.W. Economic and Environmental Changes in Shenzhen—A Technology Hub in Southern China. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5545 is available at
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