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Title: GPR virtual guidance system for subsurface 3D imaging
Authors: Ching, GPH 
Chang, RKW 
Luo, TXH
Lai, WWL 
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: Remote sensing, June 2021, v. 13, no. 11, 2154
Abstract: Three-dimensional GPR imaging requires evenly and densely distributed measurements, ideally collected without the need for ground surface markings, which is difficult to achieve in large-scale surveys. In this study, a guidance system was developed to guide the GPR operator to walk along a predesigned traverse, analogous to the flight path design of an airborne drone. The guidance system integrates an auto-track total station unit (ATTS), and by estimating the real-time offset angle and distance, guidance corrections can be provided to the operator in real time. There are two advantages: (1) reduced survey time as grid marking on the ground is no longer needed and (2) accurate positioning of each traverse. Lab and field experiments were conducted in order to validate the guidance system. The results show that with the guidance system, the survey paths were better defined and followed in terms of feature connectivity and resolution of images, and the C-scans generated were closer to the real subsurface world.
Keywords: 3D GPR image
Ground penetrating radar
Virtual guidance system
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Remote sensing 
EISSN: 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs13112154
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
The following publication Ching, G.P.H.; Chang, R.K.W.; Luo, T.X.H.; Lai,W.W.L. GPR Virtual Guidance System for Subsurface 3D Imaging. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2154 is available at
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