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Title: The knowledge, practice and attitudes of nurses regarding physical restraint : survey results from psychiatric inpatient settings
Authors: Lee, TK 
Välimäki, M
Lantta, T
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, July 2021, v. 18, no. 13, 6747
Abstract: There is a considerable amount of literature describing how nurses’ knowledge contributes to their attitudes and practices related to patient physical restraint. However, whether or not there have been any improvements in nurses’ knowledge levels, attitudes or practices regarding physical restraint during the past few years is unknown. A survey was conducted on nurses (n = 133) in one psychiatric hospital in Hong Kong (n = 98, response rate = 74%). The data were analyzed using independent t-tests, ANOVA, a Mann–Whitney U test, a Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman’s rho. In general, nurses had good restraint-related knowledge with satisfactory attitudes and practices, although their knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices regarding restraint varied. Having a higher age, seniority, and education level contributed to a higher restraint-related knowledge level. Male nurses demonstrated more desirable practices (i.e., care of restrained patients), while nurses with a higher education level were more likely to avoid restraint. Nurses’ restraint-related knowledge positively correlated with restraint practices. Although nurses’ knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices regarding restraint were found to be satisfactory, more training efforts should focus on young nurses working in psychiatric settings with less work experience and lower education levels. As some nurses seem to favor the use of restraint with limited reflection, more studies are needed to verify nurses’ emotions and how their emotions influence the use of restrictive practices.
Keywords: Nursing attitudes
Nursing knowledge
Nursing practice
Physical restraint
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18136747
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).
The following publication Lee, T.-K.; Välimäki, M.; Lantta, T. The Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes of Nurses Regarding Physical Restraint: Survey Results from Psychiatric Inpatient Settings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6747 is available at
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