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Title: Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality among the critically ill in an intensive care unit : a systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors: Zhang, XM
Chen, D
Xie, XH
Zhang, JE
Zeng, Y
Cheng, ASK 
Issue Date: 2021
Source: BMC geriatrics, 2021, v. 21, 339
Abstract: Background: The evidence of sarcopenia based on CT-scan as an important prognostic factor for critically ill patients has not seen consistent results. To determine the impact of sarcopenia on mortality in critically ill patients, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the association between sarcopenia and mortality.
Methods: We searched studies from the literature of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from database inception to June 15, 2020. All observational studies exploring the relationship between sarcopenia based on CT-scan and mortality in critically ill patients were included. The search and data analysis were independently conducted by two investigators. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA Version 14.0 software using a fixed-effects model.
Results: Fourteen studies with a total of 3,249 participants were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of sarcopenia among critically ill patients was 41 % (95 % CI:33-49 %). Critically ill patients with sarcopenia in the intensive care unit have an increased risk of mortality compared to critically ill patients without sarcopenia (OR = 2.28, 95 %CI: 1.83–2.83; P < 0.001; I2 = 22.1 %). In addition, a subgroup analysis found that sarcopenia was associated with high risk of mortality when defining sarcopenia by total psoas muscle area (TPA, OR = 3.12,95 %CI:1.71–5.70), skeletal muscle index (SMI, OR = 2.16,95 %CI:1.60–2.90), skeletal muscle area (SMA, OR = 2.29, 95 %CI:1.37–3.83), and masseter muscle(OR = 2.08, 95 %CI:1.15–3.77). Furthermore, critically ill patients with sarcopenia have an increased risk of mortality regardless of mortality types such as in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.99, 95 %CI:1.45–2.73), 30-day mortality(OR = 2.08, 95 %CI:1.36–3.19), and 1-year mortality (OR = 3.23, 95 %CI:2.08 -5.00).
Conclusions: Sarcopenia increases the risk of mortality in critical illness. Identifying the risk factors of sarcopenia should be routine in clinical assessments and offering corresponding interventions may help medical staff achieve good patient outcomes in ICU departments.
Keywords: Critically ill
Intensive care unit
Meta-analysis
Mortality
Sarcopenia
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC geriatrics 
EISSN: 1471-2318
DOI: 10.1186/s12877-021-02276-w
Rights: © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
The following publication Zhang, XM., Chen, D., Xie, XH. et al. Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality among the critically ill in an intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr 21, 339 (2021) is available at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02276-w
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