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Title: Effects of urban functional fragmentation on nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) variation with anthropogenic-emission restriction in China
Authors: Meng, Y 
Wong, MS 
Xing, H
Zhu, R 
Qin, K
Kwan, MP
Lee, KH
Kwok, CYT 
Li, H 
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Scientific reports, 2021, v. 11, 11908
Abstract: Urban functional fragmentation plays an important role in assessing Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) emissions and variations. While the mediated impact of anthropogenic-emission restriction has not been comprehensively discussed, the lockdown response to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides an unprecedented opportunity to meet this goal. This study proposes a new idea to explore the effects of urban functional fragmentation on NO2 variation with anthropogenic-emission restriction in China. First, NO2 variations are quantified by an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with external variables-Dynamic Time Warping (SARIMAX-DTW)-based model. Then, urban functional fragmentation indices including industrial/public Edge Density (ED) and Landscape Shape Index (LSI), urban functional Aggregation Index (AI) and Number of Patches (NP) are developed. Finally, the mediated impacts of anthropogenic-emission restriction are assessed by evaluating the fragmentation-NO2 variation association before and during the lockdown during COVID-19. The findings reveal negative effects of industrial ED, public LSI, urban functional AI and NP and positive effects of public ED and industrial LSI on NO2 variation based on the restricted anthropogenic emissions. By comparing the association analysis before and during lockdown, the mediated impact of anthropogenic-emission restriction is revealed to partially increase the effect of industrial ED, industrial LSI, public LSI, urban functional AI and NP and decrease the effect of public ED on NO2 variation. This study provides scientific findings for redesigning the urban environment in related to the urban functional configuration to mitigating the air pollution, ultimately developing sustainable societies.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-91236-w
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
The following publication Meng, Y., Wong, M. S., Xing, H., Zhu, R., Qin, K., Kwan, M. P., ... & Li, H. (2021). Effects of urban functional fragmentation on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variation with anthropogenic-emission restriction in China. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-15 is available at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91236-w
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