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Title: A new high-voltage calcium intercalation host for ultra-stable and high-power calcium rechargeable batteries
Authors: Xu, ZL 
Park, J
Wang, J
Moon, H
Yoon, G
Lim, J
Ko, YJ
Cho, SP
Lee, SY
Kang, K
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Nature communications, 2021, v. 12, 3369
Abstract: Rechargeable calcium batteries have attracted increasing attention as promising multivalent ion battery systems due to the high abundance of calcium. However, the development has been hampered by the lack of suitable cathodes to accommodate the large and divalent Ca2+ ions at a high redox potential with sufficiently fast ionic conduction. Herein, we report a new intercalation host which presents 500 cycles with a capacity retention of 90% and a remarkable power capability at ~3.2 V (vs. Ca/Ca2+) in a calcium battery. The cathode material derived from Na0.5VPO4.8F0.7 is demonstrated to reversibly accommodate a large amount of Ca2+ ions, forming a series of CaxNa0.5VPO4.8F0.7 (0 < x < 0.5) phases without any noticeable structural degradation. The robust framework enables one of the smallest volume changes (1.4%) and the lowest diffusion barriers for Ca2+ among the cathodes reported to date, offering the basis for the outstanding cycle life and power capability.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Nature communications 
EISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-23703-x
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit licenses/by/4.0/.
The following publication Xu, ZL., Park, J., Wang, J. et al. A new high-voltage calcium intercalation host for ultra-stable and high-power calcium rechargeable batteries. Nat Commun 12, 3369 (2021) is available at
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