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Title: Pasta meal intake in relation to risks of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women : findings from the women's health initiative
Authors: Huang, M
Lo, K 
Li, J
Allison, M
Wu, WC
Liu, S
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: BMJ nutrition, prevention and health, June 2021, v. 4, no. 1, e000198, p. 195-205
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between pasta meal intake and long-term risk of developing diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke) in postmenopausal women.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA.
Participants: 84 555 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 in 1994, who were free of diabetes, ASCVD and cancer at baseline who were not in the dietary modification trial of the WHI, completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, and were evaluated for incident diabetes and ASCVD outcomes during the follow-up until 2010.
Main outcome measure: Diabetes and ASCVD.
Results: Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association (HR) between quartiles of pasta meal consumption (residuals after adjusting for total energy) and the risk of incidence diabetes, CHD, stroke or ASCVD, accounting for potential confounding factors, with testing for linear trend. We then statistically evaluated the effect of substituting white bread or fried potato for pasta meal on disease risk. When comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of residual pasta meal intake, we observed significantly reduced risk of ASCVD (HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96, p trend=0.002), stroke (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.93, p trend=0.001), CHD (HR=0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.00, p trend=0.058) and no significant alteration in diabetes risk (HR=1.02, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.07, p trend=0.328). Replacing white bread or fried potato with pasta meal was statistically associated with decreased risk of stroke and ASCVD.
Conclusions: Pasta meal intake did not have adverse effects on long-term diabetes risk and may be associated with significant reduced risk of stroke and ASCVD. The potential benefit of substituting pasta meal for other commonly consumed starchy foods on cardiometabolic outcomes warrants further investigation in additional high-quality and large prospective studies of diverse populations.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus
Nutrition assessment
Publisher: B M J Group
Journal: BMJ nutrition, prevention and health 
EISSN: 2516-5542
DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000198
Rights: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021.
Open access This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
The following publication Huang M, Lo K, Li J, et al. Pasta meal intake in relation to risks of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women : findings from the Women’s Health Initiative. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2021;4:e000198 is available at
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