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Title: Therapeutic effect and mechanisms of essential oils in mood disorders : interaction between the nervous and respiratory systems
Authors: Fung, TKH 
Lau, BWM 
Ngai, SPC 
Tsang, HWH 
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: International journal of molecular sciences, May 2021, v. 22, no. 9, 4844
Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from plants and contain active components with therapeutic effects. Evidence shows that various types of EOs have a wide range of health benefits. In our previous studies, the potential of lavender EO for prevention and even treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms was demonstrated. The favourable outcomes may be due to multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of monoamine level, the induction of neurotrophic factor expression, the regulation of the endocrine system and the promotion of neurogenesis. The molecules of EOs may reach the brain and exert an effect through two distinctive pathways, namely, the olfactory system and the respiratory system. After inhalation, the molecules of the EOs would either act directly on the olfactory mucosa or pass into the respiratory tract. These two delivery pathways suggest different underlying mechanisms of action. Different sets of responses would be triggered, such as increased neurogenesis, regulation of hormonal levels, activation of different brain regions, and alteration in blood biochemistry, which would ultimately affect both mood and emotion. In this review, we will discuss the clinical effects of EOs on mood regulation and emotional disturbances as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Emphasis will be put on the interaction between the respiratory and central nervous system and the involved potential mechanisms. Further evidence is needed to support the use of EOs in the clinical treatment of mood disturbances. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insight into the future therapeutic use of EO components treatment of psychiatric and physical symptoms.
Keywords: Anti-depression
Anxiolytic
Essential oil
Inhalation therapy
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of molecular sciences 
ISSN: 1661-6596
EISSN: 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22094844
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
The following publication Fung, T.K.H.; Lau, B.W.M.; Ngai, S.P.C.; Tsang, H.W.H. Therapeutic Effect and Mechanisms of Essential Oils in Mood Disorders: Interaction between the Nervous and Respiratory Systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4844 is available at https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094844
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