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Title: A longitudinal study of the relation between childhood activities and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence
Authors: Wong, RS
Tung, KTS
Rao, N
Chan, KL 
Fu, KW
Tso, WWY
Jiang, F
Yam, JCS
Coghill, D
Wong, ICK
Ip, P
Issue Date: 2-May-2021
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2 May 2021, v. 18, no. 10, 5299, p. 1-11
Abstract: Background: Although an increasing body of research shows that excessive screen time could impair brain development, whereas non-screen recreational activities can promote the development of adaptive emotion regulation and social skills, there is a lack of comparative research on this topic. Hence, this study examined whether and to what extent the frequency of early-life activities predicted later externalizing and internalizing problems.
Methods: In 2012/13, we recruited Kindergarten 3 (K3) students from randomly selected kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong and collected parent-report data on children’s screen activities and parent–child activities. In 2018/19, we re-surveyed the parents of 323 students (aged 11 to 13 years) with question items regarding their children’s externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between childhood activities and psychosocial problems in early adolescence.
Results: Early-life parent–child activities (β = −0.14, p = 0.012) and child-alone screen use duration (β = 0.15, p = 0.007) independently predicted externalizing problems in early adolescence. Their associations with video game exposure (β = 0.19, p = 0.004) and non-screen recreational parent–child activities (β = −0.14, p = 0.004) were particularly strong. Conclusions: Parent–child play time is important for healthy psychosocial development. More efforts should be directed to urge parents and caregivers to replace child-alone screen time with parent–child play time.
Keywords: Adolescence
Cohort study
Early-life activities
Psychosocial development
Screen time
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18105299
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Wong, R.S.; Tung, K.T.S.; Rao, N.; Ho, F.K.W.; Chan, K.L.; Fu, K.-W.; Tso,W.W.Y.; Jiang, F.; Yam, J.C.S.; Coghill, D.; et al. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Childhood Activities and Psychosocial Adjustment in Early Adolescence. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5299 is available
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