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Title: Spectral analysis of muscle hemodynamic responses in post-exercise recovery based on near-infrared spectroscopy
Authors: Tan, Q 
Wang, Y 
Li, Z
Wang, D
Lam, WK
Wong, DWC 
Peng, Y 
Zhang, G 
Zhang, M 
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: Sensors, 1 May 2021, v. 21, no. 9, 3072
Abstract: Spectral analysis of blood flow or blood volume oscillations can help to understand the regulatory mechanisms of microcirculation. This study aimed to explore the relationship between muscle hemodynamic response in the recovery period and exercise quantity. Fifteen healthy subjects were required to perform two sessions of submaximal plantarflexion exercise. The blood volume fluctuations in the gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded in three rest phases (before and after two exercise sessions) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Wavelet transform was used to analyze the total wavelet energy of the concerned frequency range (0.005–2 Hz), which were further divided into six frequency intervals corresponding to six vascular regulators. Wavelet amplitude and energy of each frequency interval were analyzed. Results showed that the total energy raised after each exercise session with a significant difference between rest phases 1 and 3. The wavelet amplitudes showed significant increases in frequency intervals I, III, IV, and V from phase 1 to 3 and in intervals III and IV from phase 2 to 3. The wavelet energy showed similar changes with the wavelet amplitude. The results demonstrate that local microvascular regulators contribute greatly to the blood volume oscillations, the activity levels of which are related to the exercise quantity.
Keywords: Hemodynamic response
Muscle recovery
Near-infrared spectroscopy
Wavelet transform
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sensors 
EISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s21093072
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Tan, Q., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Wang, D., Lam, W. K., Wong, D. W. C., ... & Zhang, M. (2021). Spectral Analysis of Muscle Hemodynamic Responses in Post-Exercise Recovery Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Sensors, 21(9), 3072 is available at
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