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Title: Stairwell smoke transport in a full-scale high-rise building : influence of opening location
Authors: He, JJ
Huang, XY 
Ning, XY
Zhou, TN
Wang, J
Yuen, R
Issue Date: Oct-2020
Source: Fire safety journal, Oct. 2020, v, 117, 103151
Abstract: In this study, a series of experiments were conducted with varying number of pool fires and opening location (floor with ventilation openings) in a 21-story full-scale office building to study the transport phenomena and stratification of hot smoke in the stairwell. The experiments show that the flame of the pool fire inclines away from the side lobby door as pushed by the side air entrainment. The strength of stack effect in the stairwell initially increases, then decreases with the opening height increases. The rise in temperature in the stairwell can be divided into a lower and an upper region, depending on the location and attenuation effect of the upper opening. In the lower region, both the stack effect and turbulent mixing play important roles in the movement of hot smoke, whereas in contrast, in the upper region, turbulent mixing dominates. The equivalent heat release rate for hot smoke in the upper region is determined through theoretical analysis, and an integrated correlation is proposed for predicting the rise time of the smoke plume in the stairwell. These unique full-scale experiments provide crucial experimental data and empirical correlations that help the design of safer smoke ventilation systems for stairwells in a high-rise building.
Keywords: Full-scale experiment
Smoke ventilation
Temperature distribution
Empirical correlation
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Fire safety journal 
ISSN: 0379-7112
DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2020.103151
Rights: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
© 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
The following publication He, J., Huang, X., Ning, X., Zhou, T., Wang, J., & Yuen, R. (2020). Stairwell smoke transport in a full-scale high-rise building: Influence of opening location. Fire Safety Journal, 117, 103151 is available at
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