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Title: Reducing tourist stereotyping : effectiveness of communication messages
Authors: Tung, VWS 
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2021
Source: Journal of travel research, 1 Feb. 2021, v. 60, no. 2, p. 281-292
Abstract: This research investigates the effectiveness of messaging strategies to reduce negative tourist stereotyping by residents given the detrimental effects of stereotyping on host–tourist relations. Study 1 examines the effects of two strategies: “prevalence of stereotyping message” (PSM) and “prevalence of counter-stereotyping message” (PCSM), compared to a control group via a between-subjects experimental design. Study 2 investigates whether eliciting a common identity between residents and tourists could further improve these strategies via a 2 (stereotype reduction: PSM vs. PCSM) × 2 (identity: tourists as residents vs. residents as tourists) between-subjects experimental design. Study 3 examines the boundary conditions of these strategies with a group of nonlocal, subgroup residents. The findings show that tourist stereotypes are malleable, and stereotype reduction efforts through communication messages could reduce biases against tourists by residents. This research contributes by connecting concepts on stereotype reduction, social norms, and social identity with tourism stereotype research.
Keywords: Biases
Host–tourist interactions
Intergroup relations
Social identity
Social norm
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Journal: Journal of travel research 
ISSN: 0047-2875
EISSN: 1552-6763
DOI: 10.1177/0047287519900002
Rights: This is the accepted version of the publication Tung, V. W. S., Reducing tourist stereotyping: Effectiveness of communication messages, Journal of Travel Research (Volume 60 and issue 2) pp. 281-292. Copyright © 2020 (The Author(s)). DOI: 10.1177/0047287519900002.
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