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Title: Partnership status and living situation in persons experiencing physical disability in 22 countries : are there patterns according to individual and country-level characteristics?
Authors: Fekete, C
Arora, M
Reinhardt, JD 
GrossHemmi, M
Kyriakides, A
Le, Fort, M
Engkasan, JP
Tough, H
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2020
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 1 Oct. 2020, v. 17, no. 19, 7002, p. 1-11
Abstract: Persons experiencing disabilities often face difficulties to establish and maintain intimate partnerships and the decision whether to live alone or with others is often not their own to make. This study investigates whether individual and country-level characteristics predict the partnership status and the living situation of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) from 22 countries. We used data from 12,591 participants of the International SCI Community Survey (InSCI) and regressed partnership status and living situation on individual (sociodemographic and injury characteristics) and country-level characteristics (Human Development Index, HDI) using multilevel models. Females, younger persons, those with lower income, without paid work, more severe injuries, and longer time since injury were more often single. Males, older persons, those with higher income, paid work, less severe injuries, and those from countries with higher HDI more often lived alone. This study provides initial evidence for the claim that the partnership status and the living situation of people with SCI are influenced by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors and are not merely a matter of choice, in particular for those with severe injuries.
Keywords: Disability
Household composition
Living alone
Marital status
Spinal cord injury
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17197002
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Fekete, C.; Arora, M.; Reinhardt, J.D.; Gross-Hemmi, M.; Kyriakides, A.; Le Fort, M.; Patrick Engkasan, J.; Tough, H. Partnership Status and Living Situation in Persons Experiencing Physical Disability in 22 Countries: Are There Patterns According to Individual and Country-Level Characteristics? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7002 is available at
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