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Title: The relationship between affiliate stigma in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and their children's activity participation
Authors: Ng, CKM 
Lam, SHF 
Tsang, STK 
Yuen, CMC 
Chien, CW 
Issue Date: Mar-2020
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 1 Mar. 2020, v. 17, no. 5, 1799, p. 1-13
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to participate less in everyday activities, and their parents face stigma on account of having a child with ASD, which they often internalize as affiliate stigma. Studies have examined the impact of affiliate stigma on parents' psychological well-being and social behaviors, but little is known about how affiliate stigma impacts their children's activity participation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between parents' affiliate stigma and activity participation of their children with ASD. Sixty-three parents of children with ASD (aged 2-6 years) were recruited. They completed questionnaires, which captured affiliate stigma, their child's participation (frequency and involvement) in home, preschool, and community activities, and demographic characteristics. Results indicated that these parents had a moderate level of affiliate stigma, which did not correlate with the frequency of their children's participation in activities. However, the parents' affiliate stigma was found to have negative impacts on their children's involvement in overall community participation and participation in one particular activity at home. The findings highlight the importance of destigmatization of parents of children with ASD in order to promote their children's participation in community activities.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder
Affiliate stigma
Activity participation
Young children's participation and environment measure
Preschool-aged children
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17051799
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Ng, C.K.M.; Lam, S.H.F.; Tsang, S.T.K.; Yuen, C.M.C.; Chien, C.-W. The Relationship between Affiliate Stigma in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Children’s Activity Participation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1799 is available at
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