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Title: Influence of family factors on substance use in early adolescents : a longitudinal study in Hong Kong
Authors: Shek, DTL 
Zhu, XQ 
Dou, DY 
Chai, WY 
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Journal of psychoactive drugs, 2020, v. 52, no. 1, p. 66-76
Abstract: The present study examined the concurrent and longitudinal influences of paternal and maternal factors on the levels of and changes in substance use among early adolescents. Based on three waves of data collected from 2,669 junior high school Chinese students in Hong Kong, we found that fathers' and mothers' behavioral control and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship were negative predictors of the initial levels of substance use. Higher levels of maternal behavioral control and quality of mother-adolescent relationship predicted a slower rate of increase in adolescent substance use. Parental psychological control was not a significant predictor of the growth rate of adolescent substance use. While fathers' behavioral control and mother-adolescent relationship were stable concurrent predictors, the mother-adolescent relationship was a robust longitudinal predictor of adolescent substance use. The findings underline the critical roles of parents in influencing adolescent substance use.
Keywords: Chinese students
Junior high school
Substance use
Parent-child relational quality
Publisher: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Journal: Journal of psychoactive drugs 
ISSN: 0279-1072
EISSN: 2159-9777
DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2019.1707333
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s).
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
The following publication Daniel T. L. Shek, Xiaoqin Zhu, Diya Dou & Wenyu Chai (2020) Influence of Family Factors on Substance Use in Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong,Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 52:1, 66-76 is available at
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