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Title: Automatic elevator button localization using a combined detecting and tracking framework for multi-story navigation
Authors: Jiang, S 
Yao, W 
Wong, MS 
Hang, M
Hong, ZH
Kim, EJ
Joo, SH
Kuc, TY
Issue Date: 2019
Source: IEEE access, 6 Dec. 2019, v. 8, p. 1118-1134
Abstract: Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important function for service robots to self-navigate modernized buildings. However, only a few existing applications allow them to automatically move between stories through elevator. Some approaches have accomplished with the aid of hardware; however, this study shows that computer vision can be a promising alternative for button localization. In this paper, we proposed a real-time multi-story SLAM system which overcomes the problem of detecting elevator buttons using a localization framework that combines tracking and detecting approaches. A two-stage deep neural network initially locates the original positions of the target buttons, and a part-based tracker follows the target buttons in real-time. A positive-negative classifier and deep learning neural network (particular for button shape detection) modify the tracker's output in every frame. To allow the robot to self-navigate, a 2D grid mapping approach was used for the localization and mapping. Then, when the robot navigates a floor, the A002A; algorithm generates the shortest path. In the experiment, two dynamic scenes (which include common elevator button localization challenges) were used to evaluate the efficiency of our approach, and compared it with other state-of-the-art methods. Our approach was also tested on a prototype robot system to assesses how well it can navigate a multi-story building. The results show that our method could overcome the common background challenges that occur inside an elevator, and in doing so, it enables the mobile robot to autonomously navigate a multi-story building.
Keywords: Elevators
Target tracking
Simultaneous localization and mapping
Task analysis
Machine learning
Elevator button localization
Multi-story navigation
Object detection
Visual tracking
Deep learning
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Journal: IEEE access 
EISSN: 2169-3536
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2958092
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see
The following publication S. Jiang et al., "Automatic Elevator Button Localization Using a Combined Detecting and Tracking Framework for Multi-Story Navigation," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 1118-1134, 2020 is available at
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