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Title: A new DGNSS positioning infrastructure for android smartphones
Authors: Weng, D 
Gan, X
Chen, W 
Ji, S
Lu, Y 
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Sensors (Switzerland), 2020, v. 20, no. 2, 487
Abstract: One’s position has become an important piece of information for our everyday lives in a smart city. Currently, a position can be obtained easily using smartphones that is equipped with low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) chipsets with accuracy varying from 5 m to 10 m. Differential GNSS (DGNSS) is an efficient technology that removes the majority of GNSS errors with the aid of reference stations installed at known locations. The sub-meter accuracy can be achieved when applying the DGNSS technology on the advanced receivers. In 2016, Android has opened the accesses of raw GNSS measurements to developers. However, most of the mid and low-end smartphones only provide the data using the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) protocol. They do not provide the raw measurements, and thus do not support the DGNSS operation either. We proposed a DGNSS infrastructure that correct the standalone GNSS position of smartphones using the corrections from the reference station. In the infrastructure, the position correction is generated considering the GNSS satellite IDs that contribute to the standalone solution in smartphones, and the position obtained is equivalent to the solution of using the range-domain correction directly. To serve a large number of smartphone users, a Client/Server architecture is developed to cope with a mass of DGNSS positioning requests efficiently. The comparison of the proposed infrastructure against the ground truth, for all field tests in open areas, showed that the infrastructure achieves the horizontal positioning accuracy better than 2 m. The improvement in accuracy can reach more than 50% for the test in the afternoon. The infrastructure brings benefits to applications that require more accuracy without requiring any hardware modifications.
Keywords: Accuracy
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sensors (Switzerland) 
ISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s20020487
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Weng D, Gan X, Chen W, Ji S, Lu Y. A New DGNSS Positioning Infrastructure for Android Smartphones. Sensors. 2020; 20(2):487,
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