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Title: Animal models of osteochondral defect for testing biomaterials
Authors: Meng, X
Ziadlou, R
Grad, S
Alini, M
Wen, C 
Lai, Y
Qin, L
Zhao, Y
Wang, X
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Biochemistry research international, 2020, v. 2020, 9659412
Abstract: The treatment of osteochondral defects (OCD) remains a great challenge in orthopaedics. Tissue engineering holds a good promise for regeneration of OCD. In the light of tissue engineering, it is critical to establish an appropriate animal model to evaluate the degradability, biocompatibility, and interaction of implanted biomaterials with host bone/cartilage tissues for OCD repair in vivo. Currently, model animals that are commonly deployed to create osteochondral lesions range from rats, rabbits, dogs, pigs, goats, and sheep horses to nonhuman primates. It is essential to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model in terms of the accuracy and effectiveness of the experiment. Therefore, this review aims to introduce the common animal models of OCD for testing biomaterials and to discuss their applications in translational research. In addition, we have reviewed surgical protocols for establishing OCD models and biomaterials that promote osteochondral regeneration. For small animals, the non-load-bearing region such as the groove of femoral condyle is commonly chosen for testing degradation, biocompatibility, and interaction of implanted biomaterials with host tissues. For large animals, closer to clinical application, the load-bearing region (medial femoral condyle) is chosen for testing the durability and healing outcome of biomaterials. This review provides an important reference for selecting a suitable animal model for the development of new strategies for osteochondral regeneration.
Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Journal: Biochemistry research international 
EISSN: 2090-2247
DOI: 10.1155/2020/9659412
Rights: Copyright © 2020 Xiangbo Meng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The following publication Meng, X., Ziadlou, R., Grad, S., Alini, M., Wen, C., Lai, Y., ... & Wang, X. (2020). Animal Models of Osteochondral Defect for Testing Biomaterials. Biochemistry Research International, 2020, is available at
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