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Title: Psychometric analysis of the sleep hygiene index and correlation with stress and anxiety among saudi university students
Authors: Anwer, S 
Alghadir, A
Manzar, MD
Noohu, MM
Salahuddin, M
Li, H 
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Nature and science of sleep, 8 Nov. 2019, v. 11, p. 325-332
Abstract: Aims: This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) instrument in screening poor sleep hygiene practices among Saudi university students. As a secondary goal, the association of sleep hygiene practices with stress and anxiety scores were assessed.
Methods: Two-hundred and four healthy college and university students aged 18 to 25 years participated in this cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Participants were asked to complete the English version of the SHI instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, and to provide demographic details.
Results: The average scores for the SHI, the GAD-7, and the PSS-10 were 6.6, 5.3, and 16.2, respectively. The internal consistency of the SHI was adequate (McDonald's Omega 0.76). The corrected item-total correlations for all the items were fair (range, 0.31-0.50). A statistically significant positive correlation/association of the SHI scores with the PSS score, GAD-7, and self-reported poor sleep were obtained in this sample of Saudi university students. Factor analysis favored a 4-factor model of the SHI in the study sample.
Conclusion: The SHI scale demonstrated an adequate level of internal consistency as a self-reported instrument in the assessment of sleep hygiene among Saudi university students. In addition, poor sleep hygiene was correlated with stress and anxiety scores.
Keywords: Sleep hygiene
University student
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Journal: Nature and science of sleep 
EISSN: 1179-1608
DOI: 10.2147/NSS.S222440
Rights: © 2019 Anwer et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (
The following publication Anwer, S., Alghadir, A., Manzar, M. D., Noohu, M. M., Salahuddin, M., & Li, H. (2019). Psychometric analysis of the sleep hygiene index and correlation with stress and anxiety among saudi university students. Nature and Science of Sleep, 11, 325-332 is available at
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