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Title: Hybrid urban canyon pedestrian navigation scheme combined PDR, GNSS and beacon based on smartphone
Authors: Ye, JH
Li, Y 
Luo, H 
Wang, J 
Chen, W 
Zhang, Q
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Remote sensing, Sept. 2019, v. 11, no. 18, 2174, p. 1-26
Abstract: This study presents a comprehensive urban canyon pedestrian navigation scheme. This scheme combines smart phone internal MEMS sensors, GNSS and beacon observations together. Heading estimation is generally a key issue of the PDR algorithm. We design an orientation fusion algorithm to improve smart phone heading using MEMS measurements. Static and kinematic tests are performed, superiority of the improved heading algorithm is verified. We also present different heading processing solutions for comparison and analysis. Heading bias increases with time due to error accumulation and model inaccuracy. Thus, we develop a related heading calibration method based on beacons. This method can help correct smart phone headings continuously to decrease cumulative error. In addition to PDR, we also use GNSS and beacon measurements to integrate a fusion location. In the fusion procedure, we design related algorithms to adjust or limit the use of these different type observations to constrain large jumps in our Kalman filter model, thereby making the solution stable. Navigation experiments are performed in the streets of Mong Kok and Wanchai, which are typically the most crowded areas of Hong Kong, with narrow streets and many pedestrians, vehicles and tall buildings. The first experiment uses the strategy PDR + GNSS + beacon, in east-west orientation street, in which 10 m positioning error is improved from 30% (smart phone internal GNSS) to 80% and in south-north orientation street, in which 15 m positioning error is improved from 20% (smart phone internal GNSS) to 80%. The second experiment performs two long-distance tests without any beacons, in which the fusion scheme also has significant improvement, that is, 10 m positioning error is improved from 38% to 60%.
Keywords: GNSS
Kalman Filter
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Remote sensing 
EISSN: 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs11182174
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Ye, J. H., Li, Y. X., Luo, H., Wang, J. X., Chen, W., & Zhang, Q. (2019). Hybrid urban canyon pedestrian navigation scheme combined PDR, GNSS and beacon based on smartphone. Remote Sensing, 11(18), 2174, 1-26 is available at
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