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Title: Generation and characterization of ultra-precision compound freeform surfaces
Authors: Kong, LB
Ma, YG
Ren, MJ
Xu, M
Cheung, C 
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Science progress, 2019, p. 1-21
Abstract: Compound freeform surfaces are widely used in bionic and optical applications. The manufacturing and measurement of such surfaces are challenging due to the complex geometry with multi-scale features in a high precision level with sub-micrometer form accuracy and nanometer surface finish. This article presents a study of ultra-precision machining and characterization of compound freeform surfaces. A hybrid machining process by combining slow slide servo and fast tool servo is proposed to machine compound freeform surfaces. The machining process for this hybrid tool servo is explained, and tool path generation is presented. Then, a normal template-based matching and characterization method is proposed to evaluate such compound freeform surfaces. Experimental studies are undertaken to machine a compound freeform surface using the proposed method based on a four-axis ultra-precision machine tool. The machined compound freeform surface is also measured and characterized by the proposed analysis and characterization method. The experimental results are presented, and the machining errors for compound freeform surfaces are also discussed.
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Journal: Science progress 
ISSN: 0036-8504
EISSN: 2047-7163
DOI: 10.1177/0036850419880112
Rights: © The Author(s) 2019
Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the CreativeCommons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the originalwork is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
The following publication Kong, L. B., Ma, Y. G., Ren, M. J., Xu, M., & Cheung, C. A. (2019). Generation and characterization of ultra-precision compound freeform surfaces. Science Progress, 1-21 is available at
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