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Title: Effect of music listening on physiological condition, mental workload, and driving performance with consideration of driver temperament
Authors: Wen, H
Sze, NN 
Zeng, Q 
Hu, S
Issue Date: 2019
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019, v. 16, no. 15, 2766
Abstract: This paper presents the study on the association between in-vehicle music listening, physiological and psychological response, and driving performance, using the driving simulator approach, with which personality (temperament) was considered. The performance indicators considered were the standard deviation of speed, lane crossing frequency, perceived mental workload, and mean and variability of heart rate. Additionally, effects of the presence of music and music genre (light music versus rock music) were considered. Twenty participants of different personalities (in particular five, four, seven, and four being choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic, respectively) completed a total of 60 driving simulator tests. Results of mixed analysis of variance (M-ANOVA) indicated that the effects of music genre and driver character on driving performance were significant. The arousal level perceived mental workload, standard deviation of speed, and frequency of lane crossing were higher when driving under the influence of rock music than that when driving under the influence of light music or an absence of music. Additionally, phlegmatic drivers generally had lower arousal levels and choleric drivers had a greater mental workload and were more likely distracted by music listening. Such findings should imply the development of cost-effective driver education, training, and management measures that could mitigate driver distraction. Therefore, the safety awareness and safety performance of drivers could be enhanced.
Keywords: Driver temperament
Driving performance
In-vehicle music
Music genre
Physiological condition
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sensors (Switzerland) 
ISSN: 1661-7827
EISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16152766
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Wen H, Sze NN, Zeng Q, Hu S. Effect of Music Listening on Physiological Condition, Mental Workload, and Driving Performance with Consideration of Driver Temperament. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(15):2766, is available at
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