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Title: Hybrid modeling of flows over submerged prismatic vegetation with different areal densities
Authors: Li, CW 
Busari, AO
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Engineering applications of computational fluid mechanics, 2019, v. 13, no. 1, p. 493-505
Abstract: In the modeling of vegetated flows an efficient approach is to solve the Double Averaged Navier Stokes (DANS) equations, which are obtained from the spatial and temporal averaging of the Navier Stokes equations. The resistance effects of vegetation are modeled by a drag force density term with an empirical bulk drag coefficient, as well as by turbulence terms characterized by a length scale parameter. These empirical parameters are dependent on the areal density of vegetation and the spatial distribution pattern of vegetation elements and have seldom been studied. In this work the effect of spatial distribution of vegetation elements on the bulk drag coefficient is investigated by computing explicitly the flows around the vegetation elements. The results show that the bulk drag coefficient increases with the longitudinal vegetation element spacing, decreases with the lateral vegetation element spacing and can have multiple values for a given areal density of vegetation. In the DANS model the vegetation induced turbulence is simulated by a novel k-ε type model embracing an empirical length scale parameter. The length scale parameters are calibrated against previous experiments and a new set of experiments with high areal density of vegetation. The DANS model is subsequently verified by two cases with the same vegetation density and different distribution patterns.
Keywords: DANS model
Distribution pattern
Drag coefficient
Submerged vegetation
Publisher: Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
Journal: Engineering applications of computational fluid mechanics 
ISSN: 1994-2060
EISSN: 1997-003X
DOI: 10.1080/19942060.2019.1610501
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The following publication Chi-wai Li & Afis Olumide Busari (2019) Hybrid modeling of flows over submerged prismatic vegetation with different areal densities, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 13:1, 493-505, is available at
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