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Title: Nanofiber enhanced stimulated Raman spectroscopy for ultra-fast, ultra-sensitive hydrogen detection with ultra-wide dynamic range
Authors: Qi, Y 
Zhao, Y 
Bao, HH 
Jin, W 
Ho, HL 
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Optica, 20 May 2019, v. 6, no. 5, p. 570-576
Abstract: The increasing importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier and industrial material calls for hydrogen sensors with higher sensitivity, better selectivity, faster response, and wider dynamic range. Here, we report a nanofiber (NF) sensor that satisfies these requirements with a single sensing element. The sensor is based on stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy, but the tightly confined evanescent field associated with the NF enhances the Raman gain per unit length by a factor of 30 to 102 over the state-of-the-art hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and more than 104 over free-space beams. The NF has excellent mode quality, which ensures mode-noise-free measurement and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio. An experiment with a 700-nm-diameter, 48-mm-long silica NF operating in the telecom wavelength band demonstrates hydrogen detection from a few parts per million to 100% with a response time less than 10 s. The sensor would be useful for a range of applications, including detection of hydrogen leakage as well as monitoring of battery charging, fuel cells, and electric power transformer health conditions.
Publisher: Optical Society of America
Journal: Optica 
ISSN: 2334-2536
DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.6.000570
Rights: © 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement (
© 2019 Optical Society of America. Users may use, reuse, and build upon the article, or use the article for text or data mining, so long as such uses are for non-commercial purposes and appropriate attribution is maintained. All other rights are reserved.
Journal © 2019 Optical Society of America
The following publication Yun Qi, Yan Zhao, Haihong Bao, Wei Jin, and Hoi Lut Ho, "Nanofiber enhanced stimulated Raman spectroscopy for ultra-fast, ultra-sensitive hydrogen detection with ultra-wide dynamic range," Optica 6, 570-576 (2019) is available at
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