Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
PIRA download icon_1.1View/Download Full Text
Title: Modeling of flexible polyurethane foam shrinkage for bra cup moulding process control
Authors: Wu, L 
Yick, KL 
Ng, S 
Sun, Y 
Issue Date: 2018
Source: Polymers, May 2018, v. 10, no. 5, 472, p. 1-13
Abstract: Nowadays, moulding technology has become a remarkable manufacturing process in the intimate apparel industry. Polyurethane (PU) foam sheets are used to mould three-dimensional (3D) seamless bra cups of various softness and shapes, which eliminate bulky seams and reduce production costs. However, it has been challenging to accurately and effectively control the moulding process and bra cup thickness. In this study, the theoretical mechanism of heat transfer and the thermal conductivity of PU foams are first examined. Experimental studies are carried out to investigate the changes in foam materials at various moulding conditions (viz., temperatures, and lengths of dwell time) in terms of surface morphology and thickness by using electron and optical microscopy. Based on the theoretical and experimental investigations of the thermal conductivity of the foam materials, empirical equations of shrinkage ratio and thermal conduction of foam materials were established. A regression model to predict flexible PU foam shrinkage during the bra cup moulding process was formulated by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method of nonlinear least squares algorithm and verified for accuracy. This study therefore provides an effective approach that optimizes control of the bra cup moulding process and assures the ultimate quality and thickness of moulded foam cups.
Keywords: Polyurethane foams
Bra cup moulding
Process control
Thermal conductivity
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Polymers 
ISSN: 2073-4360
DOI: 10.3390/polym10050472
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Wu, L., Yick, K. L., Ng, S., & Sun, Y. (2018). Modeling of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Shrinkage for Bra Cup Moulding Process Control. Polymers, 10(5), 472, 1-13 is available at
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Wu_Flexible_Polyurethane_Foam.pdf2.06 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Open Access Information
Status open access
File Version Version of Record
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

Page views

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 22, 2023


Citations as of Nov 22, 2023


Citations as of Dec 1, 2023


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 30, 2023

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.