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Title: Building operation and maintenance : manpower in Hong Kong
Authors: Lai, JHK 
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Facilities, 2017, v. 35, no. 3-4, p. 220-241
Abstract: Purpose: The study aims to reveal the state of building operation and maintenance (O&M) manpower in Hong Kong. In addition, the study included supply and demand of O&M practitioners, gaps between their required and possessed competences and ways to meet the manpower needs. Design/methodology/approach: After developing a model that integrates manpower levels (L), trades (T) and natures (N) of O&M works (named as “LTN” model), a full spectrum of O&M jobs were established followed by collecting data of 75 organizations and 402 stakeholders through two surveys. Findings: Besides the large O&M workforce, vacancy rates of the jobs were found to be significant. For the different trades and natures of O&M works, the knowledge/skills levels perceived by the stakeholders were lower than the corresponding importance levels. Research limitations/implications: The methodology of the study can be used in future research for revealing the state of O&M manpower in Hong Kong and cities alike. The way in which the “LTN” model was developed may be used as a reference for constructing similar models for manpower research in other industries. Practical implications: The findings and the measures for improving the O&M manpower can assist policymakers and human resources departments to formulate necessary education and training courses for the building industry. Originality/value: The study is the first of its kind focusing on building O&M manpower. The state of the manpower it unveiled forms a basis for comparison with similar findings in future.
Keywords: Construction
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Journal: Facilities 
ISSN: 0263-2772
EISSN: 1758-7131
DOI: 10.1108/F-03-2016-0029
Rights: © Emerald Publishing Limited This AAM is provided for your own personal use only. It may not be used for resale, reprinting, systematic distribution, emailing, or for any other commercial purpose without the permission of the publisher.
The following publication Lai, J.H.K. (2017), "Building operation and maintenance: manpower in Hong Kong", Facilities, Vol. 35 No. 3/4, pp. 220-241 is published by Emerald and is available at
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