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Title: A heuristic force model for haptic simulation of nasogastric tube insertion using fuzzy logic
Authors: Choi, KS 
He, XJ
Chiang, VCL 
Deng, ZH
Qin, J 
Issue Date: Jul-2016
Source: IEEE transactions on haptics, Jul.-Sept. 2016, v. 9, no. 3, p. 295-310
Abstract: Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is an essential clinical skill. The training is conventionally performed on rubber mannequins albeit practical limitations. Computer simulation with haptic feedback can potentially offer a more realistic and accessible training method. However, the complex interactions between the tube and the nasogastric passage make it difficult to model the haptic feedback during NGT placement. In this paper, a fuzzy-logic-based approach is proposed to directly transfer the experience of clinicians in NGT placement into the simulation system. Based on their perception of the varying tactile sensation and the conditions during NGT placement, the membership functions and fuzzy rules are defined to develop the force model. Forces created using the model are then combined with friction forces to drive the haptic device and render the insertion forces in real time. A prototype simulator is developed based on the proposed force model and the implementation details are presented. The usability of the prototype is also evaluated by clinical teachers. The proposed methodology has the potential for developing computerized NGT placement training methods for clinical education. It is also applicable for simulation systems involving complicated force interactions or computation-expensive models.
Keywords: Fuzzy logic
Force modeling
Nasogastric tube intubation
Haptic rendering
Publisher: IEEE Computer Society
Journal: IEEE transactions on haptics 
ISSN: 1939-1412
EISSN: 2329-4051
DOI: 10.1109/TOH.2016.2550044
Rights: © 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
The following publication K. Choi, X. He, V. C. L. Chiang, Z. Deng and J. Qin, "A Heuristic Force Model for Haptic Simulation of Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using Fuzzy Logic," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 295-310, 1 July-Sept. 2016 is available at
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