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Title: Design and sensorless control of a novel axial-flux permanent magnet machine for in-wheel applications
Authors: Luo, X
Niu, S 
Fu, WN 
Issue Date: Oct-2016
Source: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, Oct. 2016, v. 26, no. 7, 7523989
Abstract: This paper proposes an axial-flux-modulation permanent magnet (PM) machine and its sensorless control strategy for in-wheel application in electrical vehicles. A Vernier structure is integrated with the axial-flux PM machine to include the magnetic gear effect and improve output torque. The sensorless control strategy of the proposed machine, including initial rotor position estimation and rotating position estimation, is proposed for flux-modulation motors in this paper. The initial rotor position estimation is based on the technique of rectangular pulse voltage injection and the rotating rotor position estimation is based on the sliding mode observer (SMO). The saturation effect on inductances, which is the theoretical basis of the rectangular pulse voltage injection, makes the stator parameter variation in different loads and affects the SMO estimation. To overcome this problem, a novel online parameter self-adjustment procedure for the SMO is introduced. The machine design and its sensorless control performance are verified by simulation and prototype experiments.
Keywords: Axial flux permanent magnet (PM) machine
Inductance saturation effect
Initial rotor position
Parameter self-adjustment
Sliding mode observer (SMO)
Vernier structure
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Journal: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity 
ISSN: 1051-8223
EISSN: 1558-2515
DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2594862
Rights: ©2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
The following publication X. Luo, S. Niu and W. N. Fu, "Design and Sensorless Control of a Novel Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for In-Wheel Applications," in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1-5, Oct. 2016 is available at
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