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Title: Piezoelectric properties and hardening behavior of K[sub 5.4]Cu[sub 1.3]Ta[sub 10]O[sub 29]-doped K[sub 0.5]Na[sub 0.5]NbO₃ ceramics
Authors: Lin, D
Kwok, KW 
Chan, HLW 
Issue Date: 20-Mar-2008
Source: Journal of applied physics, 20 Mar. 2008, v. 103, no. 6, 064105, p. 1-5
Abstract: Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics K[sub 0.5]Na[sub 0.5]NbO₃+x mol % K[sub 5.4]Cu[sub 1.3]Ta[sub 10]O[sub 29] have been prepared by a conventional ceramic fabrication technique. All the ceramics possess a perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. Our results reveal that the addition of K[sub 5.4]Cu[sub 1.3]Ta[sub 10]O[sub 29] is effective in improving the densification of the ceramics. Besides, after the addition of K[sub 5.4]Cu[sub 1.3]Ta[sub 10]O[sub 29], the Curie temperature and the tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature decrease and the P-E loop becomes constricted, in particular, for the ceramic with x=0.75. Based on the symmetry-conforming principle of point defects, it is suggested that defect dipoles are formed by the acceptor dopant ions Cu[sup 2+] and O²[sup -] vacancies along the polarization direction. As a result of the low migration rate of defects, the defect dipoles remain in the original orientation during the P-E loop measurement and thus provide restoring forces to reverse the switched polarizations. Similarly, the defect dipoles do not response along with the polarization in the normal piezoelectric activities and thus provide “pinning” to the deformed polarization, making the ceramics become “hardened.” For the ceramic with x=0.75, the mechanical quality factor Q[sub m] becomes maximum at a value of 1530, while the other piezoelectric properties remain reasonably high: piezoelectric coefficient d₃₃=90 pC/N, planar and thickness mode electromechanical coupling factors k[sub p]=41 and k[sub t]=46%.
Keywords: Copper compounds
Crystal symmetry
Dielectric hysteresis
Ferroelectric Curie temperature
Ferroelectric transitions
Potassium compounds
Sodium compounds
Solid-state phase transformations
Vacancies (crystal)
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Journal: Journal of applied physics 
ISSN: 0021-8979
EISSN: 1089-7550
Rights: © 2008 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in D. Lin, K.W. Kwok, & H.L.W. Chan, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064105 (2008) and may be found at
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