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Title: Spatial and seasonal distributions of carbonaceous aerosols over China 
Authors: Cao, JJ
Lee, SC 
Chow, JC
Watson, JG
Ho, KF
Zhang, RJ
Jin, ZD
Shen, ZX
Chen, GC
Kang, YM
Zou, SC
Zhang, LZ
Qi, SH
Dai, MH
Cheng, Y
Hu, K
Issue Date: Nov-2007
Source: Journal of geophysical research. Atmospheres, Nov. 2007, v. 112, no. D22, D22S11, p.1-9
Abstract: Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were taken during winter and summer seasons at 2003 in 14 cities in China. Daily PM₂.₅ samples were analyzed for OC and EC by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) thermal/optical reflectance protocol. Average PM₂.₅ OC concentrations in the 14 cities were 38.1 μg m⁻³ and 13.8 μg m⁻³ for winter and summer periods, and the corresponding EC were 9.9 μg m⁻³ and 3.6 μg m⁻³, respectively. OC and EC concentrations had summer minima and winter maxima in all the cities. Carbonaceous matter (CM), the sum of organic matter (OM = 1.6 × OC) and EC, contributed 44.2% to PM₂.₅ in winter and 38.8% in summer. OC was correlated with EC (R²: 0.56–0.99) in winter, but correlation coefficients were lower in summer (R²: 0.003–0.90). Using OC/EC enrichment factors, the primary OC, secondary OC and EC accounted for 47.5%, 31.7% and 20.8%, respectively, of total carbon in Chinese urban environments. More than two thirds of China's urban carbon is derived from directly emitted particles. Average OC/EC ratios ranged from 2.0 to 4.7 among 14 cities during winter and from 2.1 to 5.9 during summer. OC/EC ratios in this study were consistent with a possible cooling effect of carbonaceous aerosols over China.
Keywords: Aerosol
Aerosol composition
Organic carbon
Seasonal variation
Spatial distribution
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Journal: Journal of geophysical research. Atmospheres 
ISSN: 2169-897X
EISSN: 2169-8996
DOI: 10.1029/2006JD008205
Rights: Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union
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