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Title: Onset of double-diffusive convection in a rectangular cavity with stress-free upper boundary
Authors: Chen, ZW
Zhan, JM
Li, YS 
Nie, YH
Issue Date: Dec-2010
Source: Physics of fluids, Dec. 2010, v. 22, no. 12, 124101, p. 1-10
Abstract: Double-diffusive buoyancy convection in an open-top rectangular cavity with horizontal temperature and concentration gradients is considered. Attention is restricted to the case where the opposing thermal and solutal buoyancy effects are of equal magnitude (buoyancy ratio R[sub ρ] = −1). In this case, a quiescent equilibrium solution exists and can remain stable up to a critical thermal Grashof number Gr[sub c]. Linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation show that depending on the cavity aspect ratio A, the first primary instability can be oscillatory, while that in a closed cavity is always steady. Near a codimension-two point, the two leading real eigenvalues merge into a complex coalescence that later produces a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. As Gr further increases, this complex coalescence splits into two real eigenvalues again. The oscillatory flow consists of counter-rotating vortices traveling from right to left and there exists a critical aspect ratio below which the onset of convection is always oscillatory. Neutral stability curves showing the influences of A, Lewis number Le, and Prandtl number Pr are obtained. While the number of vortices increases as A decreases, the flow structure of the eigenfunction does not change qualitatively when Le or Pr is varied. The supercritical oscillatory flow later undergoes a period-doubling bifurcation and the new oscillatory flow soon becomes unstable at larger Gr. Random initial fields are used to start simulations and many different subcritical steady states are found. These steady states correspond to much stronger flows when compared to the oscillatory regime. The influence of Le on the onset of steady flows and the corresponding heat and mass transfer properties are also investigated.
Keywords: Bifurcation
Boundary layers
Confined flow
Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions
Flow instability
Flow simulation
Fluid oscillations
Mass transfer
Numerical analysis
Thermal diffusion
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Journal: Physics of fluids 
ISSN: 1070-6631 (print)
1089-7666 (online)
DOI: 10.1063/1.3517296
Rights: © 2010 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Zhi-Wu Chen et al., Physics of Fluids 22, 124101 (2010) and may be found at
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