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Title: Spectroellipsometric study of sol–gel derived potassium sodium strontium barium niobate films
Authors: Mak, CL 
Lai, B
Wong, KH
Choy, CL 
Mo, D
Zhang, YL
Issue Date: 15-Apr-2001
Source: Journal of applied physics, 15 Apr. 2001, v. 89, no. 8, p. 4491-4496
Abstract: Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to characterize the sol–gel derived (K₀.₅Na₀.₅)₀.₄(Sr₀.₆Ba₀.₄)₀.₈Nb₂O₆(KNSBN) thin films as a function of sol concentration. In the analysis of the measured SE spectra, a modified double-layer Forouhi–Bloomer model was adopted to represent the optical properties of the KNSBN films. In this model, the films were assumed to consist of two layers—a bottom bulk KNSBN layer and a surface layer that composed of bulk KNSBN as well as void. Good agreement was obtained between the measured spectra and the model calculations in the chosen spectral region. Effective medium approximation theory was used to evaluate the effective refractive index for the surface layer. The results of SE have been correlated with atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness. Our analyses have shown that the surface layer had a lower refractive index than the bottom one. In addition, the refractive index and the surface roughness of the KNSBN films increase with the sol concentration.
Keywords: Potassium compounds
Sodium compounds
Strontium compounds
Barium compounds
Ferroelectric thin films
Sol-gel processing
Refractive index
Surface topography
Atomic force microscopy
Visible spectra
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Journal: Journal of applied physics 
ISSN: 0021-8979
EISSN: 1089-7550
DOI: 10.1063/1.1355283
Rights: © 2001 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in C. L. Mak et al., J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4491 (2001) and may be found at
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