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Title: High pressure sensor based on photonic crystal fiber for downhole application
Authors: Fu, HY
Wu, C
Tse, MLV
Zhang, L
Cheng, KCD
Tam, HY 
Guan, BO
Lu, C 
Issue Date: 10-May-2010
Source: Applied optics, 10 May 2010, v. 49, no. 14, p. 2639-2643
Abstract: We demonstrate a polarization-maintaining (PM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based Sagnac interferometer for downhole high pressure sensing application. The PM PCF serves as a direct pressure sensing probe. The sensor is transducer free and thus fundamentally enhances its long-term sensing stability. In addition, the PM PCF can be coiled into a small diameter to fulfill the compact size requirement of downhole application. A theoretical study of its loss and birefringence changes with different coiling diameters has been carried out. This bend-insensitive property of the fiber provides ease for sensor design and benefits practical application. The pressure sensitivities of the proposed sensor are 4.21 and 3.24 nm/MPa at ∼1320  and ∼1550 nm, respectively. High pressure measurement up to 20 MPa was achieved with our experiment. It shows both good linearity in response to applied pressure and good repeatability within the entire measurement range. The proposed pressure sensor exhibits low temperature cross sensitivity and high temperature sustainability. It functions well without any measurable degradation effects on sensitivity or linearity at a temperature as high as 293 °C. These characteristics make it a potentially ideal candidate for downhole pressure sensing.
Keywords: Crystal whiskers
Nonlinear optics
Photonic crystals
Pressure measurement
Pressure sensors
Publisher: Optical Society of America
Journal: Applied optics 
ISSN: 1559-128X
EISSN: 2155-3165
DOI: 10.1364/AO.49.002639
Rights: © 2010 Optical Society of America. This paper was published in Applied Optics and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of OSA. The paper can be found at the following URL on the OSA website: Systematic or multiple reproduction or distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means is prohibited and is subject to penalties under law.
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