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Title: Prospective memory performance in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with Schizophrenia : a controlled study
Authors: Zhou, FC
Hou, WM
Wang, CY
Ungvari, GS
Chiu, HFK
Correll, CU
Shum, DHK
Man, D 
Liu, DT
Xiang, YT
Issue Date: Nov-2014
Source: PLoS one, Nov. 2014, v. 9, no. 11, e111562, p. 1-8
Abstract: Objective: We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in nonpsychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls (HCs).
Methods: Forty-seven FES patients, 50 non-psychotic FDRs (23 offspring and 27 siblings) of patients with chronic schizophrenia (unrelated to the FES group) and 51 HCs were studied. The Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (C-CAMPROMPT) was used to measure time-based prospective memory (TBPM) and event-based prospective memory (EBPM) performance. Other cognitive functions (involving respective memory and executive functions) were evaluated with standardized tests.
Results: After controlling for basic demographic characteristics including age, gender and educational level, there was a significant difference between FDRs, FES and HCs with respect to both TBPM (F-(2,F-142) = 10.4, p<0.001) and EBPM (F-(2,F-142) = 10.8, p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that lower scores of the Hopkins Verbal Learning TestRevised (HVLT-R) and the STROOP Word-Color Test (SWCT) contributed to TBPM impairment, while lower educational level and higher scores of the Color Trails Test-2 (CTT-2) contributed to EBPM deficit in FDRs.
Conclusions: FDRs share similar but attenuated prospective memory impairments with schizophrenia patients, suggesting that prospective memory deficits may represent an endophenotype of schizophrenia.
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS one 
EISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111562
Rights: © 2014 Zhou et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The following publication: Zhou F-C, Hou W-M, Wang C-Y, Ungvari GS, Chiu HFK, Correll CU, et al. (2014) Prospective Memory Performance in Non-Psychotic First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Controlled Study. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111562 is available at
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