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Title: Continuous monitoring of sonomyography, electromyography and torque generated by normal upper arm muscles during isometric contraction : sonomyography assessment for arm muscles
Authors: Shi, J
Zheng, YP 
Huang, QH
Chen, X
Issue Date: Mar-2008
Source: IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering, Mar. 2008, v. 55, no. 3, p. 1191 - 1198
Abstract: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the continuous signals about the thickness and pennation angle changes of muscles detected in real-time from ultrasound images, named as sonomyography (SMG), to characterize muscles under isometric contraction, along with synchronized surface electromyography (EMG) and generated torque signals. The right biceps brachii muscles of seven normal young adult subjects were tested. We observed that exponential functions could well represent the relationships between the normalized EMG root-mean-square (RMS) and the torque, the RMS and the muscle deformation SMG, and the RMS and the pennation angle SMG for the data of the contraction phase, with exponent coefficients of 0.0341±0.0148 (Mean±SD), 0.0619±0.0273, and 0.0266±0.0076, respectively. In addition, the preliminary results also demonstrated linear relationships between the normalized torque and the muscle deformation as well as the pennation angle with the ratios of and , respectively. The overall mean for the regressions was approximately 0.9 and the overall mean relative root mean square error (RRMSE) smaller than 15%. The potential values of SMG together with EMG to provide a more comprehensive assessment for the muscle functions should be further investigated with more subjects and more muscle groups.
Keywords: Electromyography
Pennation angle
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Journal: IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering 
ISSN: 0018-9294
EISSN: 1558-2531
DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2007.909538
Rights: © 2008 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
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