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Title: Activity participation intensity is associated with skeletal development in pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder
Authors: Tsang, WWN 
Guo, X 
Fong, SSM 
Mak, KK
Pang, MYC 
Issue Date: Nov-2012
Source: Research in developmental disabilities, Nov. -Dec. 2012, v. 33, no. 6, p. 1898-1904
Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children with DCD (mean age: 7.76 years) and 30 typically developing children (mean age: 7.60 years) were recruited. Skeletal maturity was assessed with the Sunlight BonAge system. Motor ability was evaluated by the Movement assessment battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Participation patterns were evaluated using the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment assessment. Analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between skeletal development, motor performance and activity participation intensity in children with DCD. Results: The DCD group had significantly delayed skeletal development, lower MABC-2 derived scores, and participated less intensely in various types of physical activities than their typically developing peers. After accounting for the effects of age and sex, activity participation intensity score remained significantly associated with delay in skeletal development, explaining 28.0% of the variance (Fchange1, 29=11.341, p=0.002). Conclusion: Skeletal development is delayed in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Limited activity participation intensity appears to be one of the contributing factors.
Keywords: Activity
Balance
Bone age
Clumsy children
Motor proficiency
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Research in developmental disabilities 
ISSN: 0891-4222
EISSN: 1873-3379
DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.05.015
Rights: © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
© 2012. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
The following publication Tsang, W. W., Guo, X., Fong, S. S., Mak, K. K., & Pang, M. Y. (2012). Activity participation intensity is associated with skeletal development in pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in developmental disabilities, 33(6), 1898-1904 is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.05.015
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