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Title: Yearly and daily relationship assessment between air pollution and early-stage COVID-19 incidence : evidence from 231 countries and regions
Authors: Meng, Y 
Wong, MS 
Xing, H
Kwan, MP
Zhu, R 
Issue Date: Jun-2021
Source: ISPRS international journal of geo-information, June 2021, v. 10, no. 6, 401
Abstract: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused significantly changes in worldwide environmental and socioeconomics, especially in the early stage. Previous research has found that air pollution is potentially affected by these unprecedented changes and it affects COVID-19 infections. This study aims to explore the non-linear association between yearly and daily global air pollution and the confirmed cases of COVID-19. The concentrations of tropospheric air pollution (CO, NO2, O3, and SO2) and the daily confirmed cases between 23 January 2020 and 31 May 2020 were collected at the global scale. The yearly discrepancies of air pollutions and daily air pollution are associated with total and daily confirmed cases, respectively, based on the generalized additive model. We observed that there are significant spatially and temporally non-stationary variations between air pollution and confirmed cases of COVID-19. For the yearly assessment, the number of confirmed cases is associated with the positive fluctuation of CO, O3, and SO2 discrepancies, while the increasing NO2 discrepancies leads to the significant peak of confirmed cases variation. For the daily assessment, among the selected countries, positive linear or non-linear relationships are found between CO and SO2 concentrations and the daily confirmed cases, whereas NO2 concentrations are negatively correlated with the daily confirmed cases; variations in the ascending/declining associations are identified from the relationship of the O3-confirmed cases. The findings indicate that the non-linear relationships between global air pollution and the confirmed cases of COVID-19 are varied, which implicates the needs as well as the incorporation of our findings in the risk monitoring of public health on local, regional, and global scales.
Keywords: Air pollution
Confirmed cases
Generalized additive model
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: ISPRS international journal of geo-information 
EISSN: 2220-9964
DOI: 10.3390/ijgi10060401
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Meng, Y.;Wong, M.S.; Xing, H.; Kwan, M.-P.; Zhu, R. Yearly and Daily Relationship Assessment between Air Pollution and Early-Stage COVID-19 Incidence: Evidence from 231 Countries and Regions. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 401 is available at
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