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Title: Efficient source camera identification with diversity-enhanced patch selection and deep residual prediction
Authors: Liu, Y
Zou, Z
Yang, Y
Law, NFB 
Bharath, AA
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Source: Sensors, July 2021, v. 21, no. 14, 4701
Abstract: Source camera identification has long been a hot topic in the field of image forensics. Besides conventional feature engineering algorithms developed based on studying the traces left upon shooting, several deep-learning-based methods have also emerged recently. However, identification performance is susceptible to image content and is far from satisfactory for small image patches in real demanding applications. In this paper, an efficient patch-level source camera identification method is proposed based on a convolutional neural network. First, in order to obtain improved robustness with reduced training cost, representative patches are selected according to multiple criteria for enhanced diversity in training data. Second, a fine-grained multiscale deep residual prediction module is proposed to reduce the impact of scene content. Finally, a modified VGG network is proposed for source camera identification at brand, model, and instance levels. A more critical patch-level evaluation protocol is also proposed for fair performance comparison. Abundant experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better results as compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms.
Keywords: Convolutional neural network
Deep learning
Image forensics
Imaging sensors
Source camera identification
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: Sensors 
EISSN: 1424-8220
DOI: 10.3390/s21144701
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
The following publication Liu, Y.; Zou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Law, N.-F.B.; Bharath, A.A. Efficient Source Camera Identification with Diversity-Enhanced Patch Selection and Deep Residual Prediction. Sensors 2021, 21, 4701 is available at https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144701
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