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Title: Chronic AdipoRon treatment mimics the effects of physical exercise on restoring hippocampal neuroplasticity in diabetic mice
Authors: Lee, TH 
Ahadullah 
Christie, BR
Lin, K
Siu, PMF
Zhang, L
Yuan, TF
Komal, P
Xu, A
So, KF
Yau, SY 
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Molecular neurobiology, 2021, Online first, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02441-7
Abstract: Administration of exercise mimetic drugs could be a novel therapeutic approach to combat comorbid neurodegeneration and metabolic syndromes. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone. In addition to its antidiabetic effect, adiponectin mediates the antidepressant effect of physical exercise associated with adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The antidiabetic effect of the adiponectin receptor agonist AdipoRon has been demonstrated, but its potential pro-cognitive and neurotrophic effects in the hippocampus under diabetic condition are still unclear. This study reported that chronic AdipoRon treatment for 2 weeks improved hippocampal-dependent spatial recognition memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Besides, AdipoRon treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of diabetic mice. Furthermore, AdipoRon treatment significantly increased dendritic complexity, spine density, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate region, and increased BDNF levels in the DG of diabetic mice. AdipoRon treatment activated AMPK/PGC-1α signalling in the DG, whereas increases in cell proliferation and LTP were not observed when PGC-1α signalling was pharmacologically inhibited. In sum, chronic AdipoRon treatment partially mimics the benefits of physical exercise for learning and memory and hippocampal neuroplasticity in the diabetic brain. The results suggested that AdipoRon could be a potential physical exercise mimetic to improve hippocampal plasticity and hence rescue learning and memory impairment typically associated with diabetes.
Keywords: Adiponectin
AdipoRon
Adult neurogenesis
Cognitive impairment
Diabetes
Hippocampal plasticity
Physical exercise
Publisher: Humana Press
Journal: Molecular neurobiology 
ISSN: 0893-7648
EISSN: 1559-1182
DOI: 10.1007/s12035-021-02441-7
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
The following publication Lee, T.H., Ahadullah, Christie, B.R. et al. Chronic AdipoRon Treatment Mimics the Effects of Physical Exercise on Restoring Hippocampal Neuroplasticity in Diabetic Mice. Mol Neurobiol (2021) is available at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02441-7
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