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Title: Addressing biodisaster X threats with artificial intelligence and 6G technologies : literature review and critical insights
Authors: Su, Z
McDonnell, D
Bentley, BL
He, J
Shi, F
Cheshmehzangi, A
Ahmad, J
Jia, P 
Issue Date: May-2021
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 25 May 2021, v. 23, no. 5, e26109
Abstract: Background: With advances in science and technology, biotechnology is becoming more accessible to people of all demographics. These advances inevitably hold the promise to improve personal and population well-being and welfare substantially. It is paradoxical that while greater access to biotechnology on a population level has many advantages, it may also increase the likelihood and frequency of biodisasters due to accidental or malicious use. Similar to "Disease X" (describing unknown naturally emerging pathogenic diseases with a pandemic potential), we term this unknown risk from biotechnologies "Biodisaster X." To date, no studies have examined the potential role of information technologies in preventing and mitigating Biodisaster X.
Objective: This study aimed to explore (1) what Biodisaster X might entail and (2) solutions that use artificial intelligence (AI) and emerging 6G technologies to help monitor and manage Biodisaster X threats.
Methods: A review of the literature on applying AI and 6G technologies for monitoring and managing biodisasters was conducted on PubMed, using articles published from database inception through to Nov.16, 2020.
Results: Our findings show that Biodisaster X has the potential to upend lives and livelihoods and destroy economies, essentially posing a looming risk for civilizations worldwide. To shed light on Biodisaster X threats, we detailed effective AI and 6G-enabled strategies, ranging from natural language processing to deep learning-based image analysis to address issues ranging from early Biodisaster X detection (eg, identification of suspicious behaviors), remote design and development of pharmaceuticals (eg, treatment development), and public health interventions (eg, reactive shelter-at-home mandate enforcement), as well as disaster recovery (eg, sentiment analysis of social media posts to shed light on the public's feelings and readiness for recovery building). Conclusions: Biodisaster X is a looming but avoidable catastrophe.
Considering the potential human and economic consequences Biodisaster X could cause, actions that can effectively monitor and manage Biodisaster X threats must be taken promptly and proactively. Rather than solely depending on overstretched professional attention of health experts and government officials, it is perhaps more cost-effective and practical to deploy technology-based solutions to prevent and control Biodisaster X threats. This study discusses what Biodisaster X could entail and emphasizes the importance of monitoring and managing Biodisaster X threats by AI techniques and 6G technologies. Future studies could explore how the convergence of AI and 6G systems may further advance the preparedness for high-impact, less likely events beyond Biodisaster X.
Keywords: 6G
Artificial intelligence
Biodisaster X
Biodisasters
Biosafety
Biosurveillance
Biotechnology
Bioterrorism
COVID-19
Disease X
Sixth-generation technologies
Publisher: JMIR Publications, Inc.
Journal: Journal of medical Internet research 
ISSN: 1439-4456
EISSN: 1438-8871
DOI: 10.2196/26109
Rights: ¬©Zhaohui Su, Dean McDonnell, Barry L Bentley, Jiguang He, Feng Shi, Ali Cheshmehzangi, Junaid Ahmad, Peng Jia. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (https://www.jmir.org), 25.05.2021. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
The following publication Su Z, McDonnell D, Bentley BL, He J, Shi F, Cheshmehzangi A, Ahmad J, Jia P Addressing Biodisaster X Threats With Artificial Intelligence and 6G Technologies: Literature Review and Critical Insights J Med Internet Res 2021; 23(5): e26109 is available at https://doi.org/10.2196/26109
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