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Title: Rate-independent and ultra-stable lowerature sodium storage in pseudocapacitive TiO₂ nanowires
Authors: Lin, D 
Li, K 
Wang, Q 
Lyu, L 
Li, B
Zhou, L 
Issue Date: 7-Sep-2019
Source: Journal of materials chemistry A, 7 Sept. 2019, v. 7, no. 33, p. 19297-19304
Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are faced with several challenges, including low capacity, short cycle life, and poor lowerature performance. In this work, TiO2-B/anatase dual-phase nanowires are synthesized and applied as SIB anodes to address the above challenges. For the first time, we find the excellent Na-storage performance of the nanowire anode like rate-independent capacities and ultra-stable cycling stability at low temperature. Operando Raman spectroscopy shows that the nanowires are completely amorphized after cycling at 303 K; however, the TiO2-B phase of the dual-phase nanowires remains crystalline after cycling at 273 K. The different sodiation mechanisms at different temperatures result in a lower capacity but a more stable structure during cycling at 273 K than at 303 K. Kinetic analysis shows that the nanowire anode possesses an ultralow charge-transfer energy barrier and resistance with a higher apparent Na diffusion coefficient at 273 K than at 303 K during desodiation, which significantly enhances the Na+ intercalation pseudocapacitive process at low temperature. The synergy between the structural transition and diffusion kinetics leads to rate-independent and ultra-stable Na-storage performance at low temperature. This work provides new perspectives for the understanding and design of lowerature SIBs with high rate capability and long cycle life.
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Journal: Journal of materials chemistry A 
ISSN: 2050-7488
EISSN: 2050-7496
DOI: 10.1039/c9ta05039f
Rights: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019
The following publication Lin, D., Li, K., Wang, Q., Lyu, L., Li, B., & Zhou, L. (2019). Rate-independent and ultra-stable low-temperature sodium storage in pseudocapacitive TiO 2 nanowires. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7(33), 19297-19304 is available at https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TA05039F
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