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Title: The effectiveness, suitability, and sustainability of non-pharmacological methods of managing pain in community-dwelling older adults : a systematic review
Authors: Tang, SK 
Tse, MMY 
Leung, SF 
Fotis, T
Issue Date: 2019
Source: BMC public health, 8 Nov. 2019, v. 19, 1488, p. 1-10
Abstract: Background Pain is common in older adults. To maintain their quality of life and promote healthy ageing in the community, it is important to lower their pain levels. Pharmacological pain management has been shown to be effective in older adults. However, as drugs can have various side effects, non-pharmacological pain management is preferred for community-dwelling older adults. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness, suitability, and sustainability of non-pharmacological pain management interventions for community-dwelling older adults.
Methods Five databases, namely, CINHAL, Journals@Ovid, Medline, PsycInfo, and PubMed, were searched for articles. The criteria for inclusion were: full-text articles published in English from 2005 to February 2019 on randomized controlled trials, with chronic non-cancer pain as the primary outcome, in which pain was rated by intensity, using non-pharmacological interventions, and with participants over 65 years old, community-dwelling, and mentally competent. A quality appraisal using the Jadad Scale was conducted on the included articles.
Results Ten articles were included. The mean age of the older adults was from 66.75 to 76. The interventions covered were acupressure, acupuncture, guided imagery, qigong, periosteal stimulation, and Tai Chi. The pain intensities of the participants decreased after the implementation of the intervention. The net changes in pain intensity ranged from - 3.13 to - 0.65 on a zero to ten numeric rating scale, in which zero indicates no pain and ten represents the worst pain. Conclusions Non-pharmacological Methods of managing pain were effective in lowering pain levels in community-dwelling older adults, and can be promoted widely in the community.
Keywords: Chronic pain
Aged
Older adults
Community-dwelling
Non-pharmacological interventions
Complementary therapy
Systematic review
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC public health 
EISSN: 1471-2458
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7831-9
Rights: © The Author(s). 2019Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
The following publication Tang, S.K., Tse, M.M.Y., Leung, S.F. et al. The effectiveness, suitability, and sustainability of non-pharmacological methods of managing pain in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 19, 1488 (2019), 1-10 is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7831-9
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