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Title: Multifunctional iron-biochar composites for the removal of potentially toxic elements, inherent cations, and hetero-chloride from hydraulic fracturing wastewater
Authors: Sun, Y
Yu, IKM
Tsang, DCW 
Cao, X
Lin, D
Wang, L
Graham, NJD
Alessi, DS
Komárek, M
Ok, YS
Feng, Y
Li, XD
Issue Date: Mar-2019
Source: Environment international, Mar. 2019, v. 124, p. 521-532
Abstract: This paper evaluates a novel sorbent for the removal of potentially toxic elements, inherent cations, and hetero-chloride from hydraulic fracturing wastewater (FWW). A series of iron-biochar (Fe-BC) composites with different Fe/BC impregnation mass ratios (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) were prepared by mixing forestry wood waste-derived BC powder with an aqueous FeCl3 solution and subsequently pyrolyzing them at 1000 °C in a N2-purged tubular furnace. The porosity, surface morphology, crystalline structure, and interfacial chemical behavior of the Fe-BC composites were characterized, revealing that Fe chelated with C–O bonds as C–O–Fe moieties on the BC surface, which were subsequently reduced to a C[dbnd]C bond and nanoscale zerovalent Fe (nZVI) during pyrolysis. The performance of the Fe-BC composites was evaluated for simultaneous removal of potentially toxic elements (Cu(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II), and As(V)), inherent cations (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Ba, and Sr), hetero-chloride (1,1,2-trichlorethane (1,1,2-TCA)), and total organic carbon (TOC) from high-salinity (233 g L−1 total dissolved solids (TDS)) model FWW. By elucidating the removal mechanisms of different contaminants, we demonstrated that Fe-BC (1:1) had an optimal reducing/charge-transfer reactivity owing to the homogenous distribution of nZVI with the highest Fe0/Fe2+ ratio. A lower Fe content in Fe-BC (0.5:1) resulted in a rapid exhaustion of Fe0, while a higher Fe content in Fe-BC (2:1) caused severe aggregation and oxidization of Fe0, contributing to its complexation/(co-)precipitation with Fe2+/Fe3+. All of the synthesized Fe-BC composites exhibited a high removal capacity for inherent cations (3.2–7.2 g g−1) in FWW through bridging with the C–O bonds and cation-π interactions. Overall, this study illustrated the potential efficacy and mechanistic roles of Fe-BC composites for (pre-)treatment of high-salinity and complex FWW.
Keywords: Engineered biochar
Fracturing wastewater treatment
Metals/metalloids
Mineral-carbon composites
Sustainable remediation
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Environment international 
ISSN: 0160-4120
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.047
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).
The following publication Sun, Y., Iris, K. M., Tsang, D. C., Cao, X., Lin, D., Wang, L., ... & Feng, Y. (2019). Multifunctional iron-biochar composites for the removal of potentially toxic elements, inherent cations, and hetero-chloride from hydraulic fracturing wastewater. Environment international, 124, 521-532 is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.01.047
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