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Title: Sponge bioerosion on changing reefs : ocean warming poses physiological constraints to the success of a photosymbiotic excavating sponge
Authors: Achlatis, M
Van Der Zande, RM
Schönberg, CHL
Fang, JKH 
Hoegh-Guldberg, O
Dove, S
Issue Date: 2017
Source: Scientific reports, 6 2017, v. 7, no. 1, 10705, p. 10705-13
Abstract: Excavating sponges are prominent bioeroders on coral reefs that in comparison to other benthic organisms may suffer less or may even benefit from warmer, more acidic and more eutrophic waters. Here, the photosymbiotic excavating sponge Cliona orientalis from the Great Barrier Reef was subjected to a prolonged simulation of both global and local environmental change: future seawater temperature, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as for 2100 summer conditions under "business-as-usual" emissions), and diet supplementation with particulate organics. The individual and combined effects of the three factors on the bioerosion rates, metabolic oxygen and carbon flux, biomass change and survival of the sponge were monitored over the height of summer. Diet supplementation accelerated bioerosion rates. Acidification alone did not have a strong effect on total bioerosion or survival rates, yet it co-occurred with reduced heterotrophy. Warming above 30 °C (+2.7 °C above the local maximum monthly mean) caused extensive bleaching, lower bioerosion, and prevailing mortality, overriding the other factors and suggesting a strong metabolic dependence of the sponge on its resident symbionts. The growth, bioerosion capacity and likelihood of survival of C. orientalis and similar photosymbiotic excavating sponges could be substantially reduced rather than increased on end-of-the-century reefs under "business-as-usual" emission profiles.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
ISSN: 2045-2322
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-10947-1
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
© The Author(s) 2017
The following publication Achlatis, M., van der Zande, R.M., Schönberg, C.H.L. et al. Sponge bioerosion on changing reefs: ocean warming poses physiological constraints to the success of a photosymbiotic excavating sponge. Sci Rep 7, 10705 (2017) is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10947-1
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