Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/2304
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Title: Biomechanics of pressure ulcer in body tissues interacting with external forces during locomotion
Authors: Mak, AFT
Zhang, M 
Tam, EWC 
Issue Date: 15-Aug-2010
Source: Annual review of biomedical engineering, 15 Aug, 2010, v. 12, p. 29-53
Abstract: Forces acting on the body via various external surfaces during locomotion are needed to support the body under gravity, control posture, and overcome inertia. Examples include the forces acting on the body via the seating surfaces during wheelchair propulsion, the forces acting on the plantar foot tissues via the insole during gait, and the forces acting on the residual-limb tissues via the prosthetic socket during various movement activities. Excessive exposure to unwarranted stresses at the body-support interfaces could lead to tissue breakdowns commonly known as pressure ulcers, often presented as deep-tissue injuries around bony prominences or as surface damage on the skin. In this article, we review the literature that describes how the involved tissues respond to epidermal loading, taking into account both experimental and computational findings from in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we discuss related literature about internal tissue deformation and stresses, microcirculatory responses, and histological, cellular, and molecular observations.
Keywords: Tissue biomechanics
Skin
Pressure ulcer
Deep-tissue injury
Ischemic reperfusion
Rehabilitation engineering
Publisher: Annual Reviews
Journal: Annual review of biomedical engineering 
ISSN: 1523-9829
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-070909-105223
Rights: Posted with permission from the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 12 ©2010 by Annual Reviews, http://www.annualreviews.org.
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