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Title: Mechanistic insights into red mud, blast furnace slag, or metakaolin-assisted stabilization/solidification of arsenic-contaminated sediment
Authors: Wang, L 
Chen, L 
Tsang, DCW 
Zhou, YY 
Rinklebe, J
Song, H
Kwon, EE
Baek, K
Ok, YS
Keywords: Green/sustainable remediation
Potentially toxic element
Arsenic leachability
Waste valorization/recycling
Hydration and polymerization
Precipitation chemistry
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Environment international, Dec. 2019, v. 133, pt. B, 105247, p. 1-10 How to cite?
Journal: Environment international 
Abstract: Elevated level of arsenic (As) in marine sediment via deposition and accumulation presents long-term ecological risks. This study proposed a sustainable stabilization/solidification (S/S) of As-contaminated sediment via novel valorization of red mud waste, blast furnace slag and calcined clay mineral, which were selected to mitigate the increased leaching of As under alkaline environment of S/S treatment. Quantitative X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses illustrated that stable Ca-As complexes (e.g., Ca-5(AsO4)(3)OH) could be formed at the expense of Ca(OH)(2) consumption, which inevitably hindered the hydration process and S/S efficiency. The Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that incorporation of metakaolin for As immobilization resulted in a low degree of hydration and polymerization, whereas addition of red mud promoted Fe-As complexation and demonstrated excellent compatibility with As. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping further confirmed the precipitation of crystalline Ca-As and amorphous Fe-As compounds. Therefore, red mud-incorporated S/S binder achieved the highest efficiency of As immobilization (99.9%), which proved to be applicable for both in-situ and ex-situ S/S of As-contaminated sediment. These results advance our mechanistic understanding for the design of green and sustainable remediation approach for effective As immobilization.
ISSN: 0160-4120
EISSN: 1873-6750
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105247
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
The following publication Wang, L., Chen, L., Tsang, D. C. W., Zhou, Y. Y., Rinklebe, J., Song, H., . . . Ok, Y. S. (2019). Mechanistic insights into red mud, blast furnace slag, or metakaolin-assisted stabilization/solidification of arsenic-contaminated sediment. Environment International, 133, B, 105247, 1-10 is available at
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