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Title: Optimizing limited-stop bus services along a public transit corridor with a differential fare structure
Authors: Tang, CY
Ge, YE
Lam, WHK 
Keywords: Public transit
Limited-stop bus service
Differentiated fare structure
Social cost
Environmental improvement
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Source: Transport, 2019, v. 34, no. 4, p. 476-489 How to cite?
Journal: Transport 
Abstract: Limited-stop bus services are a highly efficient way to release more potential of the public transit system to meet travel demand, especially under constraints on vehicle fleet size and transportation infrastructure. This work first proposes a visualized fare table for the design of limited-stop bus services along a public transit corridor, along which many lines of public transit carry a heavy load of demand back and forth every working day. Based on this proposed fare table, a set of fare strategies and desired aims of fare policy, a differentiated fare structure is established to improve social equity and increase revenue. The nature of the structure can help travellers understand how to be charged between their origins and destinations (e.g. flat, time-based, stop-based or quality-based pricing) and then plan their trips efficiently. Secondly, a model is formulated to minimize the total social cost in designing a fixed demand limited-stop bus service system with a differentiated fare structure. Thirdly, numerical results are carried out with sensitivity analysis within three scenarios of differentiated fare structures. It is found that a differentiated fare structure has a great effect on passenger path choice behaviour and resulting optimal design of bus services. An attractive feature of this differentiated fare structure is that it could not only enhance the operator's revenue and social equity but also reduce passenger transfers and social cost.
ISSN: 1648-4142
EISSN: 1648-3480
DOI: 10.3846/transport.2019.11235
Rights: Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by VGTU Press.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The following publication Tang, C., Ge, Y.-E., & Lam, W. H. K. (2019). Optimizing limited-stop bus services along a public transit corridor with a differential fare structure. Transport, 34(4), 476-489, 476-489 is available at
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