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dc.contributor.authorLi, CWen_US
dc.contributor.authorBusari, AOen_US
dc.identifier.citationEngineering applications of computational fluid mechanics, 2019, v. 13, no. 1, p. 493-505en_US
dc.description.abstractIn the modeling of vegetated flows an efficient approach is to solve the Double Averaged Navier Stokes (DANS) equations, which are obtained from the spatial and temporal averaging of the Navier Stokes equations. The resistance effects of vegetation are modeled by a drag force density term with an empirical bulk drag coefficient, as well as by turbulence terms characterized by a length scale parameter. These empirical parameters are dependent on the areal density of vegetation and the spatial distribution pattern of vegetation elements and have seldom been studied. In this work the effect of spatial distribution of vegetation elements on the bulk drag coefficient is investigated by computing explicitly the flows around the vegetation elements. The results show that the bulk drag coefficient increases with the longitudinal vegetation element spacing, decreases with the lateral vegetation element spacing and can have multiple values for a given areal density of vegetation. In the DANS model the vegetation induced turbulence is simulated by a novel k-ε type model embracing an empirical length scale parameter. The length scale parameters are calibrated against previous experiments and a new set of experiments with high areal density of vegetation. The DANS model is subsequently verified by two cases with the same vegetation density and different distribution patterns.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.publisherHong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Civil and Structural Engineeringen_US
dc.relation.ispartofEngineering applications of computational fluid mechanicsen_US
dc.rights© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
dc.rightsThe following publication Chi-wai Li & Afis Olumide Busari (2019) Hybrid modeling of flows over submerged prismatic vegetation with different areal densities, Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 13:1, 493-505, is available at
dc.subjectDANS modelen_US
dc.subjectDistribution patternen_US
dc.subjectDrag coefficienten_US
dc.subjectSubmerged vegetationen_US
dc.titleHybrid modeling of flows over submerged prismatic vegetation with different areal densitiesen_US
dc.typeJournal/Magazine Articleen_US
dc.description.validate201910 bcma-
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