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Title: Empirical analysis of parking behaviour of conventional and electric vehicles for parking modelling : a case study of Beijing, China
Authors: Zhuge, C 
Shao, C
Li, X
Keywords: Agent-based modelling
Charging behaviour
Electric vehicles
Multinomial Logit (MNL) model
Parking behaviour
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Energies, 2019, v. 12, no. 16, 3073 How to cite?
Journal: Energies 
Abstract: An empirical study of the parking behaviour of Conventional Vehicles (CVs), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) was carried out with the data collected in a paper-based questionnaire survey in Beijing, China. The study investigated the factors that might influence the parking behaviour, with a focus on the maximum acceptable time of walking from parking lot to trip destination, parking fee, the availability of charging posts, the state of charge of EVs and the range anxiety of BEVs. Several Multinomial Logit (MNL) models were developed to explore the relationships between individual attributes and parking choices. The results suggest that (1) the maximum acceptable walking time generally increases with the rise in the amount of saving for parking fee; (2) the availability of charging posts does not influence the maximum acceptable walking time when PHEVs and BEVs have sufficient charge, but the percentage of people willing to walk longer than eight minutes increases from around 35% to 46% when PHEVs are in a low stage of charge; (3) more than half of BEV drivers want the driving range of their vehicles to be one and a half times the driving distance before they depart, given the distance is 50 km. Based on the empirical findings above, a conceptual framework was proposed to explicitly simulate the parking behaviour of both CVs and EVs using agent-based modelling.
EISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en12163073
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Zhuge C, Shao C, Li X. Empirical Analysis of Parking Behaviour of Conventional and Electric Vehicles for Parking Modelling: A Case Study of Beijing, China. Energies. 2019; 12(16):3073, is available at
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